Who are we?
We are a team of young and ambitious people, with a well-defined goal: the satisfaction of our customers through products and consulting that bring the performance of a modern agriculture.
Our research and testing station located near Ruse in Bulgaria has a long experience in the production of corn hybrids, which gives us confidence that we offer some hybrids created for the climate of SE Europe.
Who is Golden West?
Golden West is active in the research, development, production and distribution of professional seeds for field crops.
Golden West produces and distributes seed in Europe, the Mediterranean Region, North Africa, Turkey, the Middle East and the Soviet Union.
About corn cultivation
Why is corn cultivation important?
Maize has a number of features that justify its special importance, which can include: high production per hectare, drought resistance and stability of production, fully mechanized work; it can be sown as a second crop, after the plants with early harvest being noticed with an added value for the farmer.
Economically, is corn the most productive plant in the world?
Due to the ease with which it is produced, harvested and stored, the corn crop is among the most productive crops in the world.
Why is rapid loss of water from the grain important?
Hybrids that quickly lose water from the grain allow mechanized harvesting and exclude additional costs for drying. At the same time, they allow the harvest in the optimal period and avoid the periods with storms but also the attack of some pests.
Seed and sowing
When is corn sown?
The sowing time is determined by the soil temperature, which must be of about 8 ⁰C with a warming weather and differs depending on the geographical areas of Romania.
In the case of early hybrids, sowing begins when the soil temperature is 5-6 ⁰C with a warming weather.
What is the sowing season for corn?
April 1-20 in Dobrogea, Southern Romania, Western Plain and Southern Moldova
April 15-20 in the Transylvanian Plain and the Center of Moldova
April 20-May 5 in the Subcarpathian areas and in Northern Romania
What is the recommended sowing density?
Each hybrid supports a certain density specific to the crop system used. The density is represented by the number of harvestable plants per hectare; when sowing to obtain this number of harvestable plants must take into account the germination of seeds as well as losses during the growing season.
What is the sowing depth?
The sowing depth varies between 5 and 8 cm. The lower limit of 5 cm is used for soils with sufficient moisture and heavier soils with a clay texture.
What problems arise in the cultivation of corn if it is sown outside the optimal season?
Sowing too early does not allow optimal germination of seeds, they can rot in the soil or prolong the period until emergence leading to the appearance of gaps in the crop and an uneven emergence.
Too late sowing favors the attack of pests, increasing the cost for their control. At the same time, the critical phases for water will coincide with the periods of drought that will lead to a decrease in subsequent production.
How do we choose the corn hybrid that is suitable for the growing area?
For each area and to have a stability of production it is preferable to choose 2-3 hybrids with different vegetation period and precocity.
What corn hybrids do we use?
Depending on your area, you can choose hybrids from the following FAO groups:
Group 180-270, which includes extra-early hybrids:
N-V of Moldova (Suceava County) and all sub-mountain regions.
Our recommendation is hybrids
• GW 0008
• GW 7590 – NEW
Group 330, which includes early hybrids:
most of Moldova between Siret and Prut, east of Crișana Plain, Someș Plain, most of the southern and western hilly areas, Mureș terraces.
Our recommendation is the hybrid
• GW 2122
Group 350-400, which includes semi-early hybrids:
East of the Banat Plain, the western half of the Crișana Plain, the southern hills of Oltenia and Muntenia.
Our recommendation is hybrids:
• GW 9003
• GW 3808
• GW 3378
Group 400-450, which includes semi-late hybrids:
The north of the Oltenia and Muntenia Plains, the Plain of southern Moldova, the east of Dobrogea and the west of the Banat Plain.
Our recommendation is hybrids
• GW 8653 – NEW
• FUNDULEA 376
How is the soil prepared for sowing?
Plowing is done immediately after harvesting the previous plant and is kept clean of weeds until the spring of sowing by passing with a disc harrow. In the spring the land must already be shredded and the next work will be carried out with the combine before sowing.
Is corn fertilization important?
Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization ensures significant crop increases on all soil types, and potassium fertilization ensures significant crop increases on luvic, sandy and irrigated soils.
What is the best fertilizer solution for corn?
Organo-mineral fertilization offers the best results in corn cultivation.
How is organic fertilizer applied?
The organic fertilizer is spread on the ground before plowing and incorporated into the soil with plowing. Recommended quantity: 20-40 t / ha.
What rule do we use for the application of mineral fertilizers?
Nitrogen fertilizers (N)
- when preparing the germination bed in the form of ammonium nitrate or simultaneously with sowing in the form of complex fertilizer: 30-40 kg s.a./ha;
- in vegetation, 1-2 applications: 30-70 kg s.a./ha, in the form of urea, ammonium nitrate or liquid fertilizers, by mounting the fertilization equipment on the cultivator.
Phosphorus fertilizers (P2O5)
- under plowing: 50-90 kg s.a / ha
Potassium fertilizers (K2O)
- under plowing: 50-80 kg s.a / ha
Why do we apply the fractional nitrogen norm, both in soil preparation and in vegetation?
The application of nitrogen fertilizers is done in installments because:
- ensures balanced plant nutrition;
- increases the nitrogen utilization coefficient of the applied fertilizer;
- reduces leachate losses and environmental pollution.
Is rotation important to corn cultivation?
Corn cultivation is not pretentious to the preceding plant. It is self-sustaining in repeated cultivation, but it is recommended not to cultivate more than 3-4 consecutive years on the same land.
What are the best precursors for corn?
Crops that release the soil early (peas, beans, borceagul___, alfalfa, etc.), because they give the possibility to execute the soil works of the summer type.
Is the wheat-corn rotation the most appropriate rotation?
It is not the most indicated rotation because it can lead to the increase of the weed reserve in the soil and to the appearance of some common diseases (ex: fusarium wilt) but also of some common pests (ex: corn borer, stem weevil).
What are corn pests?
- The first stages of vegetation: Agriotes spp. (Attack on seed and root), Tanymecus dilaticollis (in the stage of 2-3 leaves), Delia plantur, Oscinella frit, Opatum sabulosum, Pentodon Idiota, Agriotes segetum;
- Advanced stages of development: Helicoverpa armigera armigera, Anoxia Villosa, Ostrinia nubilalis, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.
How do we fight corn pests?
Pest control during maize vegetation is necessary, especially if maize is grown in monoculture or on uncultivated land, after perennial crops, which have been a refuge for pests. In these situations, wireworm and corn duck can cause problems.
What are the preventive methods to prevent the multiplication of pests?
It is recommended to perform deep plowing, keep the ground clean of weeds, sow in the optimal time and observe rotations as preventive methods for pest breeding.
How do we conserve water in the soil?
In order to ensure the infiltration of water into the soil, it is recommended that the land be well chopped, loose and free of weeds.
Another measure that will ensure the storage of a larger amount of water in the soil is the destruction of the hard-pan by using dredgers.
When unloading to control annual weeds, it is recommended to go through the harrow with adjustable fangs that dislocate small weeds. For the preparation of the germination bed, the combine will be used only on the sowing depth. Do not use the disc harrow in the spring.
The hoe is a corn care work, which in addition to destroying weeds, ensures both the loosening and aeration of the soil, as well as the conservation of water in the soil in dry areas.
The first pruning should be carried out 10 days after the maize emerges, when the plants have 4-5 leaves and the weeds are sprouted.
The second weeding is performed when the crust has formed and weeds have reappeared, usually 10-14 days after the first weeding.
Weed control by applying herbicides
The choice of herbicide should take into account the degree of weeding and the range of weeds. For pre-emergent application, the weed reserve from previous years will be taken into account. For post-emergent applications, herbicides will be chosen depending on the range of weeds grown in the field.